June 30, 2007

Potential cure for HIV discovered

In a breakthrough that could potentially lead to a cure for HIV infection, scientists have discovered a way to remove the virus from infected cells, a study released Thursday said. The scientists engineered an enzyme which attacks the DNA of the HIV virus and cuts it out of the infected cell, according to the study published in Scien

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June 29, 2007

The Molecular Sieves for Gas Separating Membranes.

Last years by growth of ecological and power problems there was appeared the complex of technologies - 'zero emission fuel combustion' where the oxygen atmosphere combustion (complete combustion) is the most prospective.

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Fusel Oil Dehydration

Currently I am looking for drying methods for Fusel oil from 5% to <0.5% Moisture content.
I could achieve 1.2% using Molecular Sieves UOP-3A-1/16.

Any suggestion??????//

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June 28, 2007

A theory against the second law of thermodynamics

A theory against the second law of thermodynamics based on LiH (lithium-hydride) thermally regenerated cell from Hungary.This is really good stuff - has to go into more details of Thermo.....Anyone who can point out the basic flaw in the system which is having so called violation of Second law.

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June 25, 2007

Century-Old Chemistry Problem Solved

Researchers have found a solution to a problem that is more than 100 years old—how to couple two unactivated carbon atoms together with the help of a catalyst.



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China overtakes US as World's No. 1 CO2 Emitter

China has overtaken the United States as the world's top producer of carbon dioxide emissions — the biggest man-made contributor to global warming — based on the latest widely accepted energy consumption data, a Dutch research group says.



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6 Common Energy Myths - Debunked

Here are 6 energy-related things that you take as fact but in actually are only myths.



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Green Chemistry - 12 Rules

THE TWELVE PRINCIPLES OF GREEN CHEMISTRY
Anastas and Warner have developed the Twelve Principles of Green Chemistry to aid one in assessing how green a chemical, a reaction or a process is.

1. It is better to prevent waste than to treat or clean up waste after it is formed.

2. Synthetic methods should be designed to maximize the incorporation of all materials used in the process into the final product.

3. Wherever practicable, synthetic methodologies should be designed to use and generate substances that possess little or no toxicity to human health and the environment.

4. Chemical products should be designed to preserve efficacy of function while reducing toxicity .

5. The use of auxiliary substances (e.g. solvents, separation agents, etc.) should be made unnecessary whenever possible and, innocuous when used.

6. Energy requirements should be recognized for their environmental and economic impacts and should be minimized. Synthetic methods should be conducted at ambient temperature and pressure.

7. A raw material feedstock should be renewable rather than depleting whenever technically and economically practical.

8. Unnecessary derivatization (blocking group, protection/deprotection, temporary modification of physical/chemical processes) should be avoided whenever possible.

9. Catalytic reagents (as selective as possible) are superior to stoichiometric reagents.

10. Chemical products should be designed so that at the end of their function they do not persist in the environment and break down into innocuous degradation products.

11. Analytical methodologies need to be further developed to allow for real-time in-process monitoring and control prior to the formation of hazardous substances.

12. Substances and the form of a substance used in a chemical process should chosen so as to minimize the potential for chemical accidents, including releases, explosions, and fires.
My Comments on some other day...........


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June 18, 2007

Phase Separator - Design Improvement

Phase Separator Design Based on My Experience





BackGround

Recently when I was working on some problem of a phase separator in which Toluene water system is handled with some amount of acetic acid, I had some great experience which I thought I should share with all of you. The Idea was to reduce the acetic acid in the water phase, which anyway cannot be reduced by separation becasue its inherent solubility in water is very high or practically unlimited. Therefore, even though plant people were trying to reduce it by changing the locaion of Interface layer, My focus was on the better separation for water & toluene and increasing its capacity.

Are you convinced that by changing the location of interface layer you can reduce the loss of a completely miscible component???????????????????


Introduction

Phase separators are basically horizontal or vertical vessels, can be used for separation of two or more liquids (generally industry uses only two due to lack of knowledge for better design in general). Separation is based on the gravity difference principle, so greater the diffeerence in densities better & faster is the separation.



Here is simple drawing representing general design.












You can read the theory & design in Coulson & Richardson for better understanding of above.


Discussion

Now the capacity in terms of better & faster separation depends on the settling velocity of dispersed phase (Water) in the continuous phase (Toluene in this case). If the actual velocity coming from the pipe (as shown above) is more than the settling velocity which is generally of the order of 0.01 or less m/sec than naturally the toluene will also go to bottom phase. This is usually the case where actual velocities are much higher than the required one in actual plant operation & design both. Therefore, we generally operate a phase separator at much lower capacity than what it is capable of.


WHAT IS THE SOLUTION??????


I have found that it is better to provide a nozzle plate at the end of inlet pipe in order to reduce the velocity. this plate should be in the horizontal plane & its width can be based on separator diameter or size. For my case I can accomodate a 4-6" wide plate with a length of ~800 mm minimum. This with an hole dia of 0.5" on each side i.e width and length can have ~128 holes.


Compared to an inlet pipe of 4" in size it can have double cross sectional area reducing the inlet velocity to half of the original design value.


Imagingly I can increase the capacity of this separator by 100% to double.


Here is a picture of what it will look like.









Enjoy using this Idea for increasing the capacity of your phase separator. Send me your comments if any.







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Fuel Saving Catalysts

The way Fuel catalyst work, is they actually transform the fuel into a much cleaner version of the original, which makes for a better and more complete combustion. They use metalic elements which create chemical reactions between the metals and the fuel, reversing any deterioration that had been previously introduced to the vehicle.



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Nanotechnology Now Used In Nearly 500 Everyday Products

The number of consumer products using nanotechnology has more than doubled, from 212 to 475, in the 14 months since the Project on Emerging Nanotechnologies launched the world’s first online inventory of manufacturer-identified nanotech goods in March 2006.



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June 17, 2007

WARNING - Fake COLGATE Toothpaste found in US with poisonous chemicals!

If your Colgate toothpaste says "Made in South Africa" and/or contains misspellings, it is likely a poisonous counterfeit. Colgate said Thursday that 5 oz tubes of counterfeit toothpaste sold in discount stores in 4 US states under a Colgate label are being recalled because they may contain DEG, a poisonous chemical found in antifreeze. Check now!



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June 12, 2007

Condensate Pumping - Save Cost

Conventionally we use centrifugal pumps for condensate transfer from any system which requires lot of pumping energy mainly due to -


  1. Mismatched pump selection as usual.


  2. Intermittent operation based on varying condensate load.


  3. Part load operation.


  4. Continuous drop in pumping efficiency due to higher temperature of fluid (Condensate).


  5. Frequent mechanical failures also contribute to point no 4 above.


  6. Overall LCC is very costly for any condensate transfer systems.


NEW PAP SYSTEM

Now we have totally different static system for condensate transfer i.e. Pressure actuated Pump. This is nothing but a mechanical device which recieves condensate in the reciever. This is having a float valve such that once it goes upto certain level the float opeans a steam inlet nozzle which is usually at 20 psi higher pressure than the back pressure of the condensate transfer system.

So if you need to transfer the condensate to 10 m elevation & at 3 Kg system than the motive steam pressure required is 30 + 10 + 15 = 55 meter Or 5.5 Kg/cm2 steam is sufficient.

The consumption of this motive steam is also usually very very low compared to conventional pumping. It consumes only 3-4 Kg of steam for each 1000 Kg of condensate transfer.





Here is a cost comparison for this PAP & conventional centrifugal pumping system. No Dear........just now I dont have sufficient time --------Its Easy you can do it on your own.

Happy Mathematics??????????? - I may provide it later on as comment on this topic....So keep watching it.




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June 11, 2007

Ethanol Boom Lining Pockets of Chemical Fertilizer Companies

Investors have chemical fertilizer companies at the top of their to-do lists, according to a recent ranking of 200 industries. The reason? A 15 percent increase in corn planting due to the government subsidies for ethanol. But all that nitrogen flows into the Gulf of Mexico and wreaks havoc with the country's most economically important fishery.



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Diet Coke Plus. A Cocktail of Chemicals?

Dr Janet Hull, a champion for the anti-aspartame movement, gives her thoughts on Coke's new diet soda."Sorry, folks, this new "vitamin" diet cola is another diet product with misleading marketing."



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Cooling Towers - Part II

This is the next one as I promised earlier in my first one "Cooling Towers: Not the Coolest One". This time I was motivated by the search of someone on cooling towers capacity assessment. I have already mentoned many factors & procedure to find out the capacity of cooling towers under the title Performance Monitoring - Item 9 to find out NTU. However, this search from some student led me to re-write it in simple way.
Let us understand how CT (cooling towers) capacity is fixed for design. (I am including this to give you an overview).
1. Assessment of all process loads. (e.g. Coolers, Condensers, etc.)
2. These process loads are then added with safety margins of 20-30% depedning on the confidence of design engineer either in terms of process temperature or in terms of flow approximation and then finally in terms of circulation pump capacity & head.
3. Thus, before hand we have ~20-30% margin in the CT flow rate compared to actual requirement.
4. Then CT is deisgned for worst case of WBT (Wet Bulb Temperature) which prevails only for 2-3 months in a year anywhere in the world in general. This in general gives you ~10% extra capacity in terms of heat load on CT.
Let us assume that these are the major prevailing factors which are contributing to the load on CT and no design or operating issue which we have discussed in the previous article is not there.
Now we can divide the loading of CT in two parts - One is flow loading & Second is heat Loading.
In General it is not advisable to increase flow loading beyond 10% or so of design value due to mechanical reasons for tower stablity & safety.
Thus the recommended way is to increase the heat load on CT utilizing the design margins available due to several reasons as discussed above & in my previous post.
Now the Mathematics is easier to find out the capacity of CT.
Case Study
Recently I need to increase the CW flow rate from a tower of 1050 M3/hr whcih was having a 3 cells of 350 M3/hr each. My requirement was 80-100 M3/hr.
When I estimated the total load on tower it was running with 1050 M3/hr flow rate but with 8°C range against design of 10°C range.
By simple maths, you can estimate that the
Heat load capacity was 1050 x 10 = 10.500 Gcal/Hr.
Actual load 1050 x 8 = 8.400 Gcal/Hr.
Additional Load 100 x 10 = 1.0 Gcal/Hr
Obviously there is margin in the CT & is possible to load it even the flow rate is running at design value of 1050 M3/Hr.
So total New load = 8.4 + 1.0 = 9.4 Gcal/Hr
With Design Flow = 1050 M3/hr
Delta T (Range required) = 8.95 ~ 9°C.
So I need to reduce the CW flow rate in other consumers such that the range of colling becomes 9°C from 8°C this will reduce the flow rate by ~100 M3/hr in other users giving me the flexibility or cushion to accomodate new load.
The purpose is to explain that CT should not be viewed as a stand alone flow machine it should always be treated as a combined entity for flow & temperature which is its heat removal capacity.
I have written it to help the users /students who are not clear in the concepts of CT. If you have any questio kindly post them in comments section & I will be happy to answer them as soon as possible for me.

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June 08, 2007

Surface Tension

Surface Tension


In the literature surface tensions of liquids are usually given at one temperature only (often 15 or 20 °C). As the temperature is raised, the surface tension decreases and becomes zero at the critical point. Based on this observation the surface tension at temperature T2 can be estimated for most liquids from the following simple equation if surface tension at another temperature T1 and critical temperature Tc of the liquid are known


This equation has been proposed by Kharbanda (Kharbanda, O.P, Ind. Chemist, Vol. 31, April 1955, p. 187). The results are fairly accurate. Best results are obtained for nonpolar compounds. Experimental values of surface tension of some pure liquids at one temperature are given in the following table. Critical temperatures for many compounds can be found in Appendix A of Properties of Gases & Liquids by Reid, Prausnitz, and Poling.

Table: Experimental values of surface tensions of pure liquids (from Jasper, J.J., J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data Vol. 1 (1972), p. 841)

Compound Temperature Surface tension
°C dynes/cm



Compound Temperature Surface tension
°C dynes/cm
Acetic acid 20 27.6
Acetone 25 24.0
Aniline 20 42.7
Benzene 20 28.9
Benzonitrile 20 39.4
Bromobenzene 20 35.8
n-Butane 20 12.5
Carbon disulfide 20 32.3
Carbon tetrachloride 15 27.7
Chlorobenzene 20 33.6
p-Cresol 40 34.9
Cyclohexane 20 25.2
Cyclopentane 20 22.6
Diethyl ether 15 17.6
Ethyl acetate 20 24.0
Ethyl benzoate 20 35.0
Ethyl mercaptan 15 23.9
Formamide 25 57.0
n-Heptane 20 20.1
Isobutyric acid 20 25.0
Methyl alcohol 20 22.6
Phenol 40 39.3
n-Propyl alcohol 20 23.7
n-Propyl benzene 20 30.0
Pyridine 20 37.2



Example:

Determine the surface tension of aniline at 80 °C. From above table the surface tension at 20°C is 42.7 dynes/cm, the critical temperature of aniline is 426 °C. Then the estimated surface tension at 80 °C from Kharbanda's correlation is 35.2 dynes/cm. Compared to the experimental value of 36.15 dynes/cm the error for the estimated value is 2.6%.

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June 06, 2007

Cool it in.......... Summer

Perfect tips for the Summer!



Cooling costs can chill your budget in the peak summer months। Here are few tips for chilling out without going broke:




  • Block out the sun. Using shades and blinds to block sunlight minimizes the amount of energy needed to cool your house. It's also worth noting that dark-colored exterior walls and roof tops can absorb up to 90% of the sun's radiant energy. To keep things cool, try painting your house a brighter color.

  • Invest in an electronic thermostat. Most people are comfortable when temperatures range from 24 to 28 °C in the home. Try to avoid going any cooler by installing a programmable thermostat that automatically shuts off when it reaches a specified temperature.

  • A few degrees can make a big difference. For every degree you shave off, you save roughly 3% on your energy bill, according to the experts at Progress Energy.com.

  • Get your filters checked. Dirty air filters can make your air-conditioning unit less cost effective and shorten the equipment's life span.


  • In most parts of the country, you can hire a heating and cooling technician to service your machine for Few Rs. A thorough cleaning may significantly lower your energy bills. So I suggest it doing every year.

  • Hire a contractor to find and fix any air leaks and add extra insulation to basements, attics and crawl spaces.


That's All..........

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People can't be bothered to make easy energy savings

According to Philips Lighting a standard incandescent light bulb costs around €1, and uses €15-worth of electricity a year. A low-energy one costs €5-6 and uses €3-worth. The payback on investing in a compact fluorescent bulb, therefore, is less than a year. Yet low-energy lighting makes up only 30% of Philips's sales.



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June 05, 2007

World Environment Day - Some Pledges

My Company’s Message on World Environment Day

1. I will boil only the water I need, rather than filling the kettle every time.

If you boil a full kettle three times a day you’ll raise carbon dioxide emissions by 52kg a year. It takes two trees to absorb that amount. If you only boil the water you need each time, you’ll save energy and reduce your carbon dioxide emissions by more than 7kg a year.

· Carbon dioxide is a greenhouse gas, which contributes to climate change. We need to reduce the amount of carbon dioxide we release to limit the effects of climate change.

· Although trees can be planted to absorb some of this carbon dioxide, we really need to use up less energy in the first place.
2. I will replace two light bulbs in my house with energy saving versions.

Over one year, it would take 13 trees to absorb the 40kg of carbon dioxide you would have emitted into the air.

· The release of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere, caused by the burning of fossil fuels, contributes to climate change. We are experiencing more floods and droughts, and wildlife and plants are also affected.

· Countries that have ratified the Kyoto Protocol must reduce their carbon dioxide emissions.

· Reducing the amount of electricity we use will mean that less fuel is burned for the generators that supply it. Doing this will also save you money.
3. I will turn my biodegradable waste into compost for my garden

Each person dumps 194kg of organic waste a year. That is the equivalent of 12,900 apple cores.

· Much of the waste we produce is collected by local authorities and burned or buried in landfill sites. Burning creates carbon dioxide emissions, which contribute to climate change. Landfill is also unsustainable, as we cannot keep creating more landfill sites.

· The only solution is to reduce the amount of waste we produce, or do something else with it. When you shop, try to find items with less packaging, and when you produce waste such as leftover food, put it in a compost bin and watch your garden bloom.


4. I will volunteer for a green project in my local community.

Many projects are completely reliant on volunteers giving up their time. The sort of projects you could do can range from litter picking, to planting trees, to running a green event.

· Trees planted absorb this carbon dioxide release caused by the burning of fossil fuels etc.

· You’ll also get the opportunity to meet lots of new people, develop new skills and put something back into the community.

5. I will reuse plastic bags for my shopping.

If you throw away four fewer plastic bags every week, you’ll save 4,160 bags from ending up in landfill sites over 20 years.

· Landfill space is limited and will eventually run out if we continue to increase the amount of rubbish we produce. Although there are alternative ways of disposing of rubbish, the best option is to produce less in the first place.

· Plastic bags also spoil the look of our environment. If we re-use the bags we already have, this will mean that fewer new ones are made... and then abandoned.

· Many supermarkets will sell you a “bag for life” which you can reuse, or you could just reuse standard plastic bags by taking a few with you when you go shopping.
6. I will share my car journeys to work with a colleague, or replace those car journeys with public transport.

The average car commuter drives 19 miles a day. Cutting that by half through car sharing would save 648kg of carbon dioxide over one year, the same as that absorbed by 216 trees.

· Carbon dioxide is one of the gases that contribute to climate change when it is released. Planting more trees is an impractical option, and we really need to reduce the amount of energy we use to cut down carbon dioxide emissions.

· Walking or cycling, even just once or twice a week, can help reduce emissions and it has financial benefits. Walking to the bus stop can also contribute to the 10,000 steps a day we all need to do to improve our health.

7. I will switch off my television or computer screen, rather than leave it on stand-by.

Over a year this will save 30kg of carbon dioxide from being emitted into the air - the same as that absorbed by 10 trees.

· The release of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere, caused by the burning of fossil fuels, contributes to climate change. We are experiencing more floods and droughts, and wildlife and plants are also affected.

· Although trees can be planted to absorb some of this carbon dioxide, we need to use up less energy in the first place. Reducing the amount of electricity we use will mean that less fuel is burned for the generators that supply it.

· Countries that have ratified the Kyoto Protocol must reduce their carbon dioxide emissions. Doing this will also save you money.

8. I will take showers instead of baths.

A daily bath uses 16, 425 liters more water a year than a shower.

· Even though the INDIA gets a lot of rain each year, but this is not in every state of INDIA, the density of our population means that water supplies are limited and must be looked after carefully.

· Many underground water sources rely solely on winter rainfall to fill them up. As summers become longer and hotter, this reduces the time that water sources can be refilled.

· We all need to make an effort to save water, or we could face drought in many parts of the country.

9. I will use an outdoor clothesline instead of a clothes dryer

The electricity used to run clothes dryer results in emission of carbon dioxide. Burning fossil fuels, such as coal is not a sustainable way of providing energy, as fossil fuels will eventually run out.

· Although trees can be planted to absorb some of this carbon dioxide, we need to use up less energy in the first place. Reducing the amount of electricity we use will mean that less fuel is burned for the generators that supply it. Doing this will also save you money.

10. I will turn the tap off when I brush my teeth.

If you brush your teeth for three minutes, twice a day with the tap running while you clean your teeth, you are wasting 10,950 liters of water a year.

· Many underground water sources rely solely on winter rainfall to fill them up. As summers become longer and hotter, this reduces the time that water sources can be refilled.

· We all need to make an effort to save water, or we could face drought in many parts of the country.

11. I will switch my household to energy generated from renewable sources.

The electricity used by the average household results in 1,892 kg of carbon dioxide. You can reduce that to zero by switching your electricity supply to a green tariff. That is the equivalent of planting 631 trees.

· Burning fossil fuels, such as coal is not a sustainable way of providing energy, as fossil fuels will eventually run out.

· Coal burning releases carbon dioxide into the atmosphere and contributes to climate change. There are a variety of alternatives we can use such as wave, wind or solar. All of these have various advantages and disadvantages but one thing is clear. We do need to move away. Doing this will also save you money.

12. I will recharge ground water by the method of rainwater harvesting in my house.

Even though the INDIA gets a lot of rain each year, but this is not in every state of INDIA, the density of our population means that water supplies are limited and must be looked after carefully.

· We all need to make an effort to conserve water, or we could face drought in many parts of the country.

· Many underground water sources rely solely on rainfall to fill them up. As summers become longer and hotter, this reduces the time that water sources can be refilled.
If Anyone of us take any one resolutions out of above 12, I will feel happier to contribute something to our society.

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