It helps in indentifying the performance, capacity & effciiency of your cooling tower. In next part of this post I will explain How to use these calculations for mesurement of efficiencies, prediction for new conditions etc.
Now we will see the NTU calculation & efficiency of tower, use of NTU method for predictions etc.
First consider the cooling water exit temperature ‘twex’ in column A in excel sheet so i.e. 35°C in this case. All the data is given in Part-I...So Check it First.
Put h’ in column B which is the enthalpy of saturated air at twex and can be calculated by the equation
Put tawet in column C starting with actual wet bulb temperature of entering air, which is 30°C in this case.
Put w as absolute humidity at tawet in column D that is calculated from the same formula as shown in Part-I of this post.
Put hcal as humidity at tawet using the formula given above for h’ in column E.
Put ha as humidity at actual wet bulb temperature of entering air, which is 30°C in this case. Yes, that means initially in the first row of calculation sheet hcal & ha will be same. This is in column F.
Now put calculation of difference of h’ – ha in column G.
In first row G will be automatically zero.
Now in second row consider the twex 2 = (Twin – Twex)/19 + twex 1
i.e. twex 2 = (44 – 35 ) / 19 + 35
= 0.474 + 35 = 35.474°C
Copy this formula in column A for next 19 rows. This gives you incremental evaluation of tower step by step along the total tower height from 35° at exit at bottom to 44° at inlet at the top.
Copy h’ formula in column B for the same no of rows.
Now put any assumed figure for tawet in column C, w in column D, hcal in column E.
Now calculation for ha will change which will come from actual L/G ratio of tower calculated in Part-I.
Use the following formula for ha in second row onwards.
ha 2 = ha1 + L/G * (twex 2 - twex 1) + (w 2 – w 1) / 1000 * twex 1
= ha1 + 1.715 * (35.474 – 35.00) + (w 2 – w 1) / 1000 * 35.0
Based on other figures it will vary.
Now since you have assumed tawet, hcal will be different from ha. Put this difference in next column G.
Now either change tawet manually to make the difference Zero in column G or use goal seek from excel. This will give you tawet, which is supposed to be the actual wet bulb temperature of air exiting from the tower at the top finally.
This will complete first part of NTU calculation after completing all the rows.
Now in next column i.e. H; put (h’ – ha) value which is Column B – Column F and copy it down till the last row.
Put reciprocal of column H in column I. This will give you 1/ (h’ – ha) value and copy it down till the last row.
Now in next column J, leave first row blank & start from second row where you should put average of first & second row in column I. This will give you average of 1 / (h’ – ha) for first & second value. Copy this formula also down till the end of rows.
Now in column K, put NTUL as calculated below (From second row as column J starts from second row).
NTUL = Column J x (twex 2 - twex 1)
= Column J x (35.474 – 35.0)
Copy this formula in all rows.
In column L, put progressive summation of NTUL calculated in column K i.e. in each row of column L, use previous row of column L + same row of column K.
This value at the end of last row will give your towers total NTU for liquid side.
Repeat all calculations in next two columns for NTUG similar to Step-5 above and find out final value of gas transfer units. The only difference is to use the following formula to calculate NTUG in column M.
NTUG = Column J x (ha 2 - ha 1) ha is in column F.
Use progressive sum again in column N.
Now I will give you guidelines on using these calculations for prediction of performance, prediction of new conditions, calculation of existing system and how to improve it in the next part of this post.